Міністерство аграрної політики та продовольства України Мирогощанський аграрний коледж завдання для самостійної підготовки студентів заочного відділення з навчальної дисципліни



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handshake потискання рук

greeting вітання

gift подарунок


welcomed привітний

misunderstanding непорозуміння

impolite нечемний

punctuality пунктуальний


appointment призначення

instead натомість

circumstance обставина


2) Read and translate the text.

British Culture 


When meeting someone for the first time, it is common to greet them with a firm handshake in Britain. Verbal greetings are usually enough when meeting old friends or acquaintances. Among close friends and family, women usually greet each other with a kiss on the cheek. If you are unsure about what to do —especially on social occasions — the rule is to observe what other people do and go with the flow.

If you are invited to dinner or to a party in their room by one of your friends, it is a good idea not to go empty-handed. A bottle of wine is usually enough. Though if you don't drink, don't let this dissuade you from accepting an invitation! There are a variety of non-alcoholic drinks you can bring instead, such as sparkling apple juice, non-alcoholic cider or wine, soft drinks, etc. Small snacks or nibbles (such as crisps, cake and the like) are another alternative.

Similarly, if you are invited to someone's family home —especially, if this is for the first time or for a meal, bring a small gift. If you will be dining together, then a bottle of wine is again ideal, but you could also bring a small gift of flowers or chocolates instead. These need not be expensive, but the gesture will be warmly welcomed. To thank your host, a phone call or ‘thank you’ card is a good idea. Remember that in Britain you can never say ‘please’, ‘thank you’ or ‘sorry’ too often!

‘Cheers’ is one of the most commonly used words in Britain. It has two uses. One is at the pub, where you will hear it said as a toast over drinks. But you will also hear it said instead of ‘thank you’ or ‘good bye’ or ‘thanks and good bye’ almost everywhere. Similarly, people will sometimes say ‘you all right?’ instead of ‘How are you?’.

A final point of note is about to how to address your tutors. As elsewhere, the general rule of thumb is to address a tutor as ‘Dr.’ or ‘Professor Burton’. But don't be surprised if you hear other students referring to their tutor by his/her first name, or if a tutor invites you to address them by their first name (for example, ‘John’). This is not unusual in Oxford. To repeat and to avoid any misunderstanding, the best —and by far the safest— thing for you to do is to address them as ‘Dr.’ or ‘Professor’, and only if they ask you to do so and you are sure they won't mind, then by their first name.

Britain has a temperate maritime climate, which basically means it is mild and damp. Summers are warm and air-conditioning unnecessary. July and August are usually the hottest months of the year. Probably the most surprising thing about summer in Britain is how long the days are. It can stay light until 10pm in June! In winter, on the other hand, it gets dark as early as 5pm in December and there is a lot of fog on most mornings. Winters are cold in Britain and a warm jacket or heavy coat are a must from November to March and sometimes even in mid-April. Rain and cloud are frequent throughout the year, as is wind.

In general, the British are very polite most of the time. ‘Please’ and ‘thank you’ are among the most commonly used words in Britain. People also have a tendency to apologize —some would say too much— and so, you will also hear ‘sorry’ and ‘excuse me’ a lot. The popular stereotype of the average British person is more often than not true —they will say sorry to you, even when it is in fact you who has accidentally stepped on their toes or bumped into them!

It will not surprise you to know then that queuing, or waiting in line so that someone who arrived first is served first, is another British near-obsession. It is sacrosanct. Seriously! Be it in the pub, at the supermarket or at a bus stop, people in Britain queue for everything. Pushing in or cutting into a queue is considered very impolite and you will be heavily frowned upon for doing it. It is one of the few occasions when the famously reserved British can get visibly annoyed in public, so do bear it in mind.

In most cases, queues are easy to spot. They tend to be tidy lines of people waiting. In public places, including shops and restaurants, there will also usually be a sign —such as ‘Please Wait Here to Be Served’ or ‘Please Queue Here’. Where it can be a bit tricky is in pubs, where the lines are neither tidy nor so easy to spot at the bar. The best thing to do is to take note of who was there before you and wait your turn to be served after them. Bar staff are usually very good about keeping track of who should be served next.

Finally, punctuality is important in Britain. As a rule, you should arrive on time for lectures, tutorials and any other appointments. Similarly, if you've arranged to meet someone at a pub, cafe or elsewhere and find yourself running late or unable to make it, then let the person you are meeting know.


3) Make up your own sentences with new words.

4) Read the sentences and say true or false:

  1. When meeting someone for the first time, it is common to greet them with a firm handshake in Britain.

  2. Among close friends and family, women usually greet each other with a handshake.

  3. ‘Cheers’ is one of the most commonly used words in Britain.

  4. Remember that in Britain you can never say ‘please’, ‘thank you’ or ‘sorry’ too often!

  5. In general, the British are not very polite most of the time.

  6. Britain has a cold climate, which basically means it is mild and damp.

  7. Finally, punctuality is important in Britain.


5) Tell your friend, who was not at the lesson, about British culture.
Питання для самоконтролю:
What do we do if we meet someone for the first time?

What word is one of the most commonly used words in Britain?



Are the British very polite most of the time?

What climate has Britain?

What is important in Britain ?

Тема: National Emblems of the United Kingdom. Національні символи Об’єднаного Королівства.
План:

1. The flag of the United Kingdom

2. Тhe Royal Arms
Рекомендована література:

1. О. Ю. Волкова «171 найсучасніша розмовна тема з англійської мови», - Х.: «Torsing», 2003.

2. Є. О. Мансі «101 розмовна тема», - К.: «А.С. К.»., 2001.

3. А.М. Ярошенко «Курс англійської мови», - Т.: 2003.



Після вивченої теми студент повинен вміти, знати:

1) лексику по даній темі;

2) читати, перекладати тексти по темі;

3) вести бесіду по темі.


Методичні вказівки:

1) Learn the words.

political політичний

country країна

island острів

flag прапор

cross полоса

to represent зображувати

national національний

emblem символ

Royal Arms королівський герб

harp арфа
2) Read and translate the text.

National Emblems of the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom (abbreviated from "The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland") is the political name of the country which consists of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (sometimes known as Ulster).

Great Britain is the name of the island which is made up of England, Scotland, Wales, whereas the British Isles is the geographical name of all the islands off the north-west coast of the European continent. In everyday speech "Britain" is used to mean the United Kingdom.

The flag of the United Kingdom, known as the Union Jack, is made up of three crosses. The upright red cross on a white background is the cross of the 1st George, the patron saint of England. The white diagonal cross on a blue background is the cross of St. Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland, The red diagonal cross on a white background is the cross of St. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland.

The Welsh flag, called the Welsh dragon, represents a red dragon on a white and green background.

St. George's Day falls on 23 April and is regarded as England's national day. On this day some patriotic Englishmen wear a rose pinned to their jackets'. A red rose is the national emblem of England from the time of the Wars of the Roses (15th century).

St. Andrew's Day (the 30th of November) is regarded as Scotland's national day. On this day some Scotsmen wear a thistle in their buttonhole. As a national emblem of Scotland, thistle apparently first used in the 15th century as a symbol of defence. The Order of the Thistle is one of the highest orders of knighthood. It was founded in 1687, and is mainly given to Scottish noblemen (limited to 16 in number).

St. Patrick's Day (the 17th of March) is considered as a national day in Northern Ireland and an official bank holiday there. The national emblem of Ireland is shamrock. According to legend, it was the plant chosen by St. Patrick to illustrate the Christian doctrine of the Trinity to the Irish.

St. David's Day (the 1st of March) is the church festival of St. David, a 6th-century monk and bishop, the patron saint of Wales. The day is regarded as the national holiday of Wales, although it is not an official bank holiday.

On this day, however, many Welshmen wear either a yellow daffodil or a leek pinned to their jackets, as both plants are traditionally regarded as national emblems of Wales.

In the Royal Arms three lions symbolize England, a lion rampant — Scotland, and a harp — Ireland. The whole is encircled and is supported by a lion and a unicorn. The lion has been used as a symbol of national strength and of the British monarchy for many centuries. The unicorn, a mythical animal that looks like a horse with a long straight horn, has appeared on the Scottish and British royal coats of arms for many centuries, and is a symbol of purity. 


3) Make up your own sentences with new words.

4) Read the sentences and say true or false:


  1. Great Britain is the name of the island which is made up of England, Scotland, Wales.

  2. The flag of the United Kingdom, known as the Union Jack, is made up of two crosses

  3. The Welsh flag, called the Welsh dragon, represents a yelow dragon on a white and green background.

  4. St. George's Day falls on 21 April and is regarded as England's national day.

  5. The national emblem of Ireland is shamrock.

  6. In the Royal Arms two lions symbolize England.


5) Tell your friend, who was not at the lesson, about British culture.
Питання для самоконтролю:
Іs Great Britain the name of the island which is made up of England, Scotland, Wales?

How many crosses are on the flag of the United Kingdom?



What mean all crosses on the flag of the United Kingdom ?

What Days do Britain celebrate ?

What is the Royal Arms?

Тема: British Ukrainian Relationship. Британсько-українське співробітництво.
План:

1. Beginning of British Ukrainian Relationship.

2. Great Britain and Ukraine today.
Рекомендована література:

1. О. Ю. Волкова «171 найсучасніша розмовна тема з англійської мови», - Х.: «Torsing», 2003.

2. Є. О. Мансі «101 розмовна тема», - К.: «А.С. К.»., 2001.

3. А.М. Ярошенко «Курс англійської мови», - Т.: 2003.



Після вивченої теми студент повинен вміти, знати:

1) лексику по даній темі;

2) читати, перекладати тексти по темі;

3) вести бесіду по темі.


Методичні вказівки:

1) Learn the words.

married /’merid/ одружений, заміжня

to support /s3´pc:t/ підтримувати

agriculture / 3gri´kʌlt13/ сільське господарство

restructuring /ri'strʌkt31riŋ/ перебудова

entrepreneur /intr3pr3’n3:/ інвестор

trade /treid/ торгівля

benefit /´benifit/ користь

joint venture /'dʒoint'vent∫3/ спільне підприємство

2) Read and translate the text.

BRITISH-UKRAINIAN RELATIONSHIP
Ties between Great Britain and Ukraine stretch far back in history. Volodymyr Monomach, who became Grand Prince of Rus in 1113, was married to Gytha, a daughter of the English king Harold.

Building close ties between Great Britain and Ukraine is an important British priority. Great Britain is taking partic­ular steps to support Ukraine policies of transformation. Through the Know-How Fund she has already supported 50 projects in areas from restructuring the electricity and agri­cultural sectors. The BBC produces a series of radio pro­grams on how to run business, helping large farms with commercial restructuring.

There is the Foreign Office's Chevening Scholarship pro­gram under which Ukrainian students go to Britain every year.

John Hughes was one of many British entrepreneurs who came to invest in the Russian Empire in the last century. He is the founder of Donetsk, great industrial city that was formerly called Yusovka after Hughes.

There are a lot of things to do in the commercial sphere. Trade between the United Kingdom and Ukraine has risen. A new joint venture, British-Ukrainian Shipbuilders has been recently opened. It will benefit the shipbuilding industries of both countries.
3) Make up your own sentences with new words.
4) Match the column A with the column B finding the antonyms.

A B


married industry

support losses

agricultural single

daughter betray

benefit son


5) Our country continues to develop its relationships with Great Britain. How do you think it is good or bad? Express your opinion to this point.
Питання для самоконтролю:
1. "How old" are British-Ukrainian relationships?

2. Who is Volodymyr Monomach? What relation is he to England?

3. How does Great Britain support Ukrainian projects?

4. Are there any programs for exchange students?

5. Who is John Hughes?

6. What British-Ukrainian joint venture has been re­cently opened?



Тема: The Cities of the United Kingdom.
План:

1. London is the most important city of Britain.

2. The largest cities of Northern Ireland.
Рекомендована література:

1. О. Ю. Волкова «171 найсучасніша розмовна тема з англійської мови», - Х.: «Torsing», 2003.

2. Є. О. Мансі «101 розмовна тема», - К.: «А.С. К.»., 2001.

3. А.М. Ярошенко «Курс англійської мови», - Т.: 2003.



Після вивченої теми студент повинен вміти, знати:

1) лексику по даній темі;

2) читати, перекладати тексти по темі;

3) вести бесіду по темі.


Методичні вказівки:

1. Learn the words.

Вивчити слова.
to stretch – простягатися

ancient – стародавній

settlement – поселення

trading centre – торгівельний центр

particularly – торгівельний центр

to be impressed by smth. – бути враженим чимось

the Whitehall – Уайтхол

the Houses of Parliament – будівля Парламенту

to be famous for smth. – бути відомим чимось

Chaucer – Чосер

Spencer – Спенсер

Tennyson – Теннісон

Milton – Мільтон

chapel – каплиця

precious – цінний

the City – Сіті (історичний центр Лондона)

the Great fire – Велика пожежа

grave – могила


2. Read and translate the text.

Прочитати і перекласти текст.
LONDON – THE CAPITAL OF GREAT BRITAIN
London is a capital of Great Britain. It lies in the valley of the Thames and stretches for over thirty miles from east to west. London is an ancient city. It grew up around the first point where the Roman invaders found the Thames narrow enough to build a bridge. So they a small Celtic settlement then known as Londinium and by AD 300 they had turned it into a separate ort and an important trading centre. Its population is over 8 million people. London is the biggest industrial and cultural centre of Great Britain.

In London one meets the past and the present, the old and the modern. It is a city of contrasts.

Trafalgar square is the centre of London. Tourists are particularly impressed by the Nelson Column in the centre of the square. It is 185 feet high. From Trafalgar square you can go along down the Whitehall and see the Houses of Parliament which stand in Parliament Square. It’s a very large square and no people around, only a tall policeman in the middle. The Houses of Parliament is a long building that stretches for about 1000feet. At one end there is the famous Big Ben. Behind it there is the Thames and the Westminster Bridge. Opposite the Houses of Parliament stands the Westminster Abbey, famous for its architecture and history. Nearly all kings and queens have been crowned in the Abbey since the time of Conquest. Chaucer, Spencer, Tennyson, Dickens and many other famous men and writers were buried there. In the Poet’s corner there are memorials to Shakespeare, Milton, Burns, Byron and many other poets and writers. The Westminster Abbey has a beautiful chapel. Its oldest part is very ancient and dates back to the 8th century. The tombs are made of gold and precious stones.

The oldest parts of London are: the rich west End, the poor East End and the City – its financial centre. The City of London is very small part, it is only one square mile in area but is the most important banking and commercial centre of the country. If you walk westwards from St. Paul’s Cathedral, you see Fleet Street. Here the most important newspapers and news-agencies have their offices. The Tower of London is situated in the City, and it comes first among the historic buildings of London. St. Paul’s Cathedral, the greatest of English churches, is situated not far from the Tower. It was rebuilt by Sir Christopher wren after the Great Fire of London. He lies buried under the roof of his own great work. These words are written on his grave, “If you want to see his monument, look around”.

London is a great port. Today 50,000 ships come to London daily and the part of the Thames, where the London port is situated, is the busiest waterway in the world.

One of London’s attractions is its parks. The most famous among them is the Hyde Park.

London is one of the most famous capital cities of the world, and every year it attracts crowds of visitors from home and abroad. They come to explore its historic buildings, to see its museums and galleries, its streets and parks. It is really worth sightseeing.


BELFAST – THE CAPITAL CITY
For many people coming to Ulster, Belfast is their port of entrance. Some of them will perhaps pass through it quickly, valuing it only as the gateway to one of the most beautiful areas of mountain, lake, seashore and open countryside in Europe; but for those with time and interest, it is worth exploring for its own sake. It also gives a key to a deeper understanding of the whole province. As the relative size of population shows, Belfast stands in the province of Ulster rather like a big house in a moderate-sized garden; and even if we prefer the garden to the house, it is well to become acquainted with the people who live in the house.

One of the first things that must strike the visitors to Belfast, if he comes here by sea up the landlocked waters of Belfast Lough or descends upon the city from the hills by the road that leads from Aldergrove Airport, is that Belfast is beautifully situated. Lying in a broad natural amphitheatre, gracefully surrounded by hills, and looking down a deep inlet of the sea, Belfast has rich variety and offers many pleasant surprises. The centre of the city is built like Amsterdam on piles driven into mud, a tight-packed area of industrial and commercial buildings, but as the broad roads that radiate from the centre bring us out to the suburban districts on the hillsides or by the sea or southwards along the valley of the River Lagan, we find the city ringed with open and attractive residential suburbs.

Belfast is a modern city, a city of the 19th century and of the industrial revolution.Its expansion was rather later than that of most other British industrial cities and it thus avoided some of their worst features. There are a few trim Georgian buildings and one or two houses dating from the 17th century, but the mass of the city’s buildings are late Victirian or belong to the present century. The City Hall in Donegall Square, with its lofty dome, is one of the chief landmarks. There are a number of public and ecclesiastical buildings worth seeing, including the huge Law Courts and the Protestant (Church of Ireland) Cathedral.

To the north and west lie the Belfast Hills. The most commanding viewpoint among these, though not the highest, is the Cave Hill (which can be ascended if one has an energetic disposition).

The usual approach is through one of the three public perks. These parks give access to fine scenery and cliff, and command excellent views across the sea, the city and the surrounding countryside.


3. Fill the gaps with the verbs from the brackets.

Заповни пропуски дієсловами з дужок.
1. His elder brother … a taxi. (drive, drives)

2. I … to school five times a week. (go, goes)

3. Those girls always … so many questions. (ask, asks)

4. We … our teacher. (understand, understands)

5. It often … in autumn. (rain, rains)

6. … she speak English well? (do, does, is)

7. … they often play computer games? (are, does, do)

8. … your parents like pop music? (is, are, do, does)

9. It … often snow in autumn. (isn’t, don’t, doesn’t)

10. He … like to play tennis. (isn’t, don’t, doesn’t)


Питання для самоконтролю:
1. Where is London situated?

2. What is the oldest building in London?

3. Who was St. Paul’s cathedral designed by?

4. What is the City famous for?

5. What do you know about Fleet Street?

6. What is the Westminster Abbey famous for?

7. What kind of district is the east End?

8. When was London founded?

9. Who turned London into a separate port and an important trading centre?

10. What is the population of London?

11. What places of interest are there in London?

12. What parts does London consist of?

13. What river flows through London?
Тема: The Economy of Ukraine. Економіка України.
План:

1. Economical situation of Ukraine.

2. Modern development of economy.
Рекомендована література:

1. О. Ю. Волкова «171 найсучасніша розмовна тема з англійської мови», - Х.: «Torsing», 2003.

2. Є. О. Мансі «101 розмовна тема», - К.: «А.С. К.»., 2001.

3. А.М. Ярошенко «Курс англійської мови», - Т.: 2003.



Після вивченої теми студент повинен вміти, знати:

1) лексику по даній темі;

2) читати, перекладати тексти по темі;

3) вести бесіду по темі.


Методичні вказівки:

1) Learn the words.

possess володіти

gain здобувати, одержувати

experience досвід

metallurgical металургія

mining гірнича справа

grain зерно

harvest врожай

inherit успадковувати

transitory перехідний

implement виконувати

either …. or або ... або

close cycle замкнута система

insufficient недостатній

flaw псувати(ся),

gross валовий

drop падати, спадати

shrink (shrank) скорочуватись

poverty бідність
2) Read and translate the text.



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