Міністерство аграрної політики та продовольства України Мирогощанський аграрний коледж завдання для самостійної підготовки студентів заочного відділення з навчальної дисципліни



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Дата конвертації08.07.2018
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Тема: READING AND TRANSLATING OF A PROFESSION ORIENTED TEXTS
План:

1. Atomic energy.

2. Fuel.

Рекомендована література:

1. А.Д. Олійник «Англійська мова», - Київ, 2009.

2. Л.О. Ніценко «Англійська мова», - НМЦ, 2004.

3. А.М. Ярошенко «Курс англійської мови», - Т.: 2003.



Після вивченої теми студент повинен вміти, знати:

1) лексику по даній темі;

2) читати, перекладати тексти по темі;

3) вести бесіду по темі.


Методичні вказівки:

1. Перекладіть текст українською мовою.

ATOMIC ENERGY

The atoms had always been regarded as the smallest in divisible units of which matter was composed. Further research showed that the atom was made up of smaller parts and that its structure was very complex. It resembler the solar system, with a central nucleus and a number of electrons, very much smaller that the nucleus and revolving around it. It was shown by Rutherford that the atom could be bombarded so that the electrons could be thrown off, and nucleus itself could be broken. In the process of splitting the nucleus, matter was converted into energy which for the scientists of the nineteenth century seemed to be impossible.

The splitting of the atom has opened to man a new and enormous source of energy. The most important results have been obtained by splitting the atom of uranium. When a uranium nucleus is struck by a neutron, it splits into two nuclei of a lighter element. During the splitting of a nucleus of uranium with atomic weight of 235, two or three neutrons fly off. These neutrons strike the nearest uranium atoms and split them throwing out three or four more neutrons: a chain reaction sets in and grows, releasing an enormous quantity of energy.

At present we are only at the beginning of the application of atomic energy and all its possible uses for peaceful purposes in power engineering, medicine and agriculture.

2.Перекладіть подані нижче речення українською мовою.

1. During his school studies Ernest Rutherford distinguished himself in physics.

2. Later Rutherford went to Cambridge where he continued his scientific researches.

3. Rutherford famous work is "The Scattering of Alpha and Beta Particles of Matter and the Structure of the Atom".

4. This work deals with so-called "atom models", according to which the atom is pictured as composed of a central charge surrounded by a sphere of electrification of equal but opposite charge.

3.Перекладіть слова та вирази англійською мовою.

Атом, атомна енергія, найменша неподільна частка, матерія, нагадувати щось, сонячна система, ядро, електрони, процес розщеплення ядра, джерело енергії, нейтрони, ланцюгова реакція, незліченна кількість енергії, застосування атомної енергії.



4.Поставте загальні запитання до 1-5 речень тексту.

5. Перекладіть подані нижче прислівники англійською мовою та утворіть від них ступені порівняння.

Близько, рано, добре, щасливо, мало, погано, правильно, зручно, швидко, повільно.



  1. Поставте дієслово-присудок у формі Past, Present, Future, Indefinite Tense.

Визначте час дієслова-присудка в кожному реченні.

This engineer (to work) at our office.


Питання для самоконтролю:

1. What had the atoms always been regarded as?

2. What did further researches show?

3. What did the atom resemble?

4. What was shown by Rutherford? 5. What was the matter converted into in the process of splitting the nucleus? 6. What has the splitting of the atom opened to man? 7. Into what does a uranium nucleus split when it is struck by a neutron? 8. What happens in the process of splitting the atom? 9. Where can we apply the atomic energy?

Тема: READING AND TRANSLATING OF A PROFESSION ORIENTED TEXTS
План:

1. Transistor Reciverrs.

2. Enegy Transformers.

Рекомендована література:

1. А.Д. Олійник «Англійська мова», - Київ, 2009.

2. Л.О. Ніценко «Англійська мова», - НМЦ, 2004.

3. А.М. Ярошенко «Курс англійської мови», - Т.: 2003.



Після вивченої теми студент повинен вміти, знати:

1) лексику по даній темі;

2) читати, перекладати тексти по темі;

3) вести бесіду по темі.


Методичні вказівки:

1.Перекладіть текст українською мовою.
TRANSISTOR RECEIVERS AND ENERGY TRANSFORMERS

Transistors and diodes, based on semiconductors, have replaced radio waves and made it possible to develop radio receivers working on low-power currents. This has enabled designers to make much smaller radio-sets using less power. Our plants are producing now various types of transistor receivers. These include non-portable receivers, which are suitable for areas with no electricity supply. The portable "spidola" transistor-set is convenient for home use, and for hikes and expeditions. Pocket transistor-sets have become very popular.

Transistor technology has opened up great opportunities for the direct conversion of solar thermal energy and of various fuels into electric power. Solar batteries consisting of silicon photocells are installed in sputniks and automatic interplanetary stations and give reliable service. Our scientists and engineers are developing other means of converting light and heat into electricity. They have developed solar thermoelectric generators, which in their simplest form consist of a bat­tery of thermo-couples in which one set of junctions is heated and ano­ther set is cooled by air or water. The electric current starts up as a result of the difference of temperatures at the terminals of the batter elements. The power of existing solar thermal generators reaches 1 kw. These installations are useful not only as a source of power lor radioreceivers but also for interior lighting.

2.Перекладіть речення англійською мовою.

1. Це зробило можливим зробити радіоприймачі, які працюють на низькому струмові.

2. Дякуючи цьому стало можливим робити менші радіоприймачі, які використовують менше енергії.

3. Сонячні батареї використовуються в супутниках та міжпланетних станціях.

4. Дуже важливо розробляти інші можливості перетворення світла і тепла в електрику.

5. Однією з таких форм перетворення є сонячні термоелектричні генератори.



3.Перекладіть слова та вирази українською мовою.

То be based on, semiconductors, to replace, radio valves, radio receiver, low-power current, radio-set, to enable, electricity, supply, to be convenient, to open great opportunities, thermal energy, electric power, solar batteries.



4.Поставте питання до кожного члена речення

Our plants are producing now various types of transistor receivers.



5.Перекладіть речення англійською мовою вживаючи при­слівник II (Participle II) підкресливши прислівник II.

1. Це було одне з питань, обговорюваних на зустрічі.

2. Чарльз Діккенс - добре відомий англійський письменник.

3. Гарно вдягнена жінка зайшла до ресторану і офіціант зразу ж підійшов до неї.

4. Він побачив її через відчинене вікно.

5. Зроблена помилка коштувала йому відмінної оцінки на екзамені.



6. Поставте речення в заперечну та запитальну форму.

1. My friend has just come to see me.

2. I have already been to France.

3. His sister has learnt 3 foreign languages since that time.

4. We have left Moscow in 1980.

5. They have met their parents at the railway station.



Питання для самоконтролю:
1. What did transistors and diodes, based on semiconductors, make it possible to do?

2. What radio-sets has this enabled designers to make?

3. What types of transistor receivers are our plants producing.

4. What is "Spidola" transistor-set convenient for?

5. What has transistor-tehnology opened up great opportunities

6. Where are solar batteries installed?

7. What are our scientists and engineers developing?

8. What have they already developed?

9. What does solar thermoelectric generator consist of?

10. What is its power?



Тема: READING AND TRANSLATING OF A PROFESSION ORIENTED TEXTS
План:

1. Tomas Elva Edison.

2. Inventions of Edison.

Рекомендована література:

1. А.Д. Олійник «Англійська мова», - Київ, 2009.

2. Л.О. Ніценко «Англійська мова», - НМЦ, 2004.

3. А.М. Ярошенко «Курс англійської мови», - Т.: 2003.



Після вивченої теми студент повинен вміти, знати:

1) лексику по даній темі;

2) читати, перекладати тексти по темі;

3) вести бесіду по темі.


Методичні вказівки:

1. Перекладіть текст українською мовою

THOMAS ELVA EDISON

Edison was a thoughtful little boy. He was very inquisitive and always wanted to know how to do things. He was not very strong, and went to school when he was quite a big child. But his teacher thought him very stupid because he asked so many questions. So his mother who was a teacher, took him away from school at the end of two months and taught him at home. With so kind a teacher, he made progress and above all, he learned to think. His mother had some good books and among them an encyclopedia. It was probably from the encyclopedia that he first took an interest in chemistry. He liked to make experiments, so he bought some books, and made a little laboratory it the cellar of his home.

When he was twelve years old, he started to earn his living and be came a newsboy on the train which ran from Port Huron to Detroit. There was a comer in the baggage car where he kept his stocks of newspapers, magazines and candy. To this corner he moved his little laboratory and library of chemical books, and when he was not busy, when on with his experiments. All went well for two or three years. But when he was in his sixteenth year, one day a phosphorus bottle broke on the floor. It set fire to the baggage car, and the conductor not only put the, boy off the train, but soundly boxed his ear. That was the most unfortunate part of the accident, for as a result Edison gradually lost his hearing, and became almost deaf.

Once he was standing on the platform of the station in Michigan, watching a coming train, when he saw the station agent's little boy on the track right in front of the coming engine. Another moment and the child would have been crushed; but Edison sprang to the track, seized the little one in his arms, and rolled with him to one side, just in time to escape the wheels. To show his gratitude the baby's father offered to teach telegraphy to Edison. Working at telegraphy he at the same time spent all the spare moments in the study to chemistry and electricity experimenting he improved telegraph apparatus. About the same time Edison made an improvement in the transmitter of the telephone which made it easier for the waves to travel, and improved the usefulness of the telephone very much. It was just about the same time that he invented the phonograph. This is the parent idea of the gramophone, dictaphone and other instruments, but these inventions are only a small part of the work of this wonderful man.

2.Перекладіть речення англійською мовою.

1. Едісон пішов до школи, коли був вже доволі дорослою дитиною.

2. Але тільки навчаючись під керівництвом своєї матері вдома, він зробив великі успіхи у навчанні.

3. Найбільший інтерес у Едісона викликала хімія.

4. На знак подяки за врятування сина, батько хлопчика навчив Едісона телеграфу.

5. Весь свій вільний час Едісон присвячував вивченню хімії та електрики.



3.Перекладіть слова та вирази українською мовою.

Inquisitive, thoughtful, to take an interest in ..., the cellar, a

coming train, gratitude, to improve, a telegraph apparatus, the transmitter, waves, the usefulness, to invent, invention, the phonograph, to show the gratitude.

4.Поставте загальні питання до 1-5 речень тексту.

5.Утворіть за допомогою суфіксів -er, -or або -ist іменники від поданих нижче слів; перекладіть слова українською мовою.

To bum, to receive, to compose, to read, to drive, to regulate, to accumulate, special, social, to visit.



6. Поставте дієслово-присудок в Present, Past, Future, Continuous. Визначте час дієслова присудка в кожному реченні.

I (to wait) for you.


Питання для самоконтролю:

      1. What kind of a boy was Edison?

      2. Why did his teacher think him very stupid?

      3. When did he make a progress in studying?

      4. What did he take an interest in chemistry from?

      5. What did he like to do?

      6. Where did he make a little laboratory?

      7. Whom did he save once?

      8. What did baby's father do to show his gratitude to Edison?

      9. What did he spend his spare time on?

      10. What were Edison's inventions?

Тема: READING AND TRANSLATING OF A PROFESSION ORIENTED TEXTS
План:

1. Primary units of measuring elektricity.

2. Magnetism.

Рекомендована література:

1. А.Д. Олійник «Англійська мова», - Київ, 2009.

2. Л.О. Ніценко «Англійська мова», - НМЦ, 2004.

3. А.М. Ярошенко «Курс англійської мови», - Т.: 2003.



Після вивченої теми студент повинен вміти, знати:

1) лексику по даній темі;

2) читати, перекладати тексти по темі;

3) вести бесіду по темі.


Методичні вказівки:

1. Перекладіть текст українською мовою.

PRIMARY UNITS OF MEASURING ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM

Volt. As it was already mentioned above, the correlation of electrons and protons determines electrical state or the potential of an atom. Potential difference or pressure is measured in volts. Volt is the pressure which being applied across the ends of a conductor of lohm resistance causes a current of 1 ampere to flow.

It is the potential difference or pressure that forces electricity to flow through a wire in a circuit.

The term voltage is used as well as pressure. Voltage is the electromotive force of a supply of electricity measured in volts.

Ohm. Electricity flowing through a conductor meets the oppression the same as water in a pipe, this opposition to the electrons movement is directly proportional to the length of the conductor inversely proportional to it's cross-section and depends upon the material and temperature of a conductor.

The specific resistance of a conductor is a resistance of a conductor of ohm and of 1 mm cross-section.

The resistance is measured in ohms which equal to the resistance offered to an unvarying electric current by a mercury column at 0°C, 14,4521 gm in mass: of uniform cross-sectional area and of length 103,3 cm.

Kilo-ohm is equal to 1000 ohms.



Ampere. The unit of the flow of electric current is called the ampere. It is the amount of electricity flowing in a conductor with the resistance of 1 ohm and with pressure of 1 volt per second.

When 63 1017 electrons pass a given point in 1 sec. They constitute a current of 1 amp. The letter "i" is used as the letter symbol for electric current.



Watt. The watt is unit of measure of the amount of work done by electrical energy when there is a flow of 1 ampere current at a pressure of I volt. Multiplying together the number of volts and amperes used by an appliance will give the number of watts necessary to operate it.

The watt being too little unit. The kilowatt-hours is widely used as a unit of electrical rating.



Electrical energy is measured in kilo-watt hours. It is the use of 1000 w. of electricity for the period of 1 hour.

Ohm's law. In all electric circuits there is a definite correlation between the pressure, the electrons motion or electric current and the resistance. This correlation was discovered about 1825 by Ohm. It states that the electric current flowing in a circuit varies directly with the electrical pressure and inversely with the opposition.

2. Перекладіть речення англійською мовою.

  1. Вольт - це потенціальна різниця, або тиск, який примушує електричний струм проходити через провід в колі.

  2. Опір руху електронів прямо пропорційний довжині провідника.

  3. Ампер - це кількість електрики, що проходить в провіднику.

  4. Ват - це одиниця виміру кількості роботи, зробленої електричною енергією.

  5. Закон Ома був відкритий в 1825 році.

3. Перекладіть слова та вирази українською мовою.

The correlation of electrons, the electrical state, the potential of an atom, pressure, the conductor, the resistance, a circuit, a wire, directly proportional, inversely proportional, electric current, electrical energy.



4.Поставте спеціальні питання до 1-5 речень до тексту.

5.Перекладіть речення англійською мовою, звертаючи увагу на пасивний стан дієслова-присудка.

1. Мене запросили на День народження.

2. Той будинок було збудовано минулого року.

3. Ці листи були знайдені в його письмовому столі.

4. Коли буде відправлено телеграму?

5. Цей роман написаний відомим англійським письменником Чарльзом Діккенсом.



6. Поставте речення в запитальну та заперечну форму.

              1. I have met him before.

              2. They have learned the new rule.

              3. My farther has finished his work.

              4. Jane has woken up.

              5. We have had a long walk today.


Питання для самоконтролю:


  1. What determines the electrical state or the potential of an atom?

  2. What is potential difference or preasure measured in?

  3. What is volt?

  4. What is voltage?

  5. What is the specific resistance of a conductor?

  6. What is the resistance measured in?

  7. What is called the ampere?

  8. What is the ampere?

  9. What is the watt?

  10. What is electrical energy measured in?

  11. What does Ohm's law state?

Тема: READING AND TRANSLATING OF A PROFESSION ORIENTED TEXTS
План:

1. A generator consists.

2. The commutator.
Рекомендована література:

1. А.Д. Олійник «Англійська мова», - Київ, 2009.

2. Л.О. Ніценко «Англійська мова», - НМЦ, 2004.

3. А.М. Ярошенко «Курс англійської мови», - Т.: 2003.



Після вивченої теми студент повинен вміти, знати:

1) лексику по даній темі;

2) читати, перекладати тексти по темі;

3) вести бесіду по темі.


Методичні вказівки:

1. Перекладіть текст українською мовою.

D. С. GENERATOR CONSTRUCTION

As we have seen a generator consists of two essential parts: the stationary part of the machine or a stator and the rotating part armature, carrying the conductors where the e. m. f. is induced.

These two principal parts are separated by the air gap.

Stator consists of a bed, main poles, providing the main magnetic flux and commutating poles intended to improve the commutation.

Rotating part of the machine - the armature - consists of a core, winding and a commutator. The main pole consists of a core, pole coil and a pole shoe. The cores of main poles are made of separate, insulated from each other laminated steel sheets, pressed: together in the shape of packets.

The pole coils are designed to excite the magnetic flux in the pole cores. The end shields bolted to both butt-ends of a generator bed, are deigned to support the armature shaft and to protect the inner part of a machine.

The armature core is of a cylindrical shape. It is made up of single sheets of electro technical steel and is fixed on the shaft.

The core slots are filled with armature winding made of copper insulated wire of a round or rectangular cross-section.

The commutator is mounted on the shaft of the armature. At the opposite to the commutator side the shaft has a free end with a key slot for mounting a pulley.

The commutator is made of copper insulated from each other segments of a wedgeshaped cross-section.

The commutator segments are fixed on a commutator sieve by means of a taper washer. It is necessary to insulate segments from a steel commutator sieve with magnate. The commutator must be of a regular cylindrical shape.

The ends of winding sections arc to be soldered to the commutator segments horns - the commutator lugs.

Brushes are made in the shape of rectangular bars and fixed in brush-holders, which hold them in a proper position and provide the reffuired brush pressure on the commutator.



2. Перекладіть речення українською мовою.

  1. A generator consists of a stator and an armature.

  2. A stator is the stationary part of the machine.

  3. An armature is the rotating part of the machine.

  4. The armature is made in the shape of the cylinder.

  5. The commutator must be of a regular cylindrical shape.

  6. The brush-holders hold brushes in a proper position.

3.Перекладіть слова та вирази англійською мовою.

Генератор, складатися з, нерухома частина, обертальна частина, якір, станина, пластина, колектор, бути вмонтованим, бути призначеним, основний полюс, бути зробленим з, вал, серцевина, обмотка, перемикач.

4. Поставте запитання до кожного члена речення.

The brush-holders hold brushes in a proper position.



5.Перекладіть речення англійською мовою, вживаючи герундій.

  1. Будь-ласка, перестаньте розмовляти.

  2. Я думаю, ми можемо продовжувати обговорювати це питання.

  3. Ви не проти, якщо ми продовжимо грати в шахи?

  4. Кожній людині необхідно читати книги.

  5. Він ще не закінчив перекладати цю статтю.

6.Поставте дієслово-присудок в Present, Past, Future, Perfect. Вкажіть час дієслова-присудка в кожному реченні.

Зробіть необхідні доповнення в кожному реченні, які вказуватимуть на час виконання дії.

I (to be) to Kyiv.

Питання для самоконтролю:


  1. What parts does the generator consist of?

  2. What are these two principal parts separated by?

  3. What does the stator consist of?

  4. What does the main pole consist of?

  5. What does the armature consist of?

  6. What are the pole coils designed to?

  7. What are the end shields designed to?

  8. What is the armature core made up?

  9. Where is the commutator made up?

  10. Where are the brushes fixed?

Тема: READING AND TRANSLATING OF A PROFESSION ORIENTED TEXTS
План:

1. Einstein's fundamental discovery.

2.The Einstein's theory .
Рекомендована література:

1. А.Д. Олійник «Англійська мова», - Київ, 2009.

2. Л.О. Ніценко «Англійська мова», - НМЦ, 2004.

3. А.М. Ярошенко «Курс англійської мови», - Т.: 2003.



Після вивченої теми студент повинен вміти, знати:

1) лексику по даній темі;

2) читати, перекладати тексти по темі;

3) вести бесіду по темі.


Методичні вказівки:

  1. Перекладіть текст українською мовою.

EINSTEIN'S FUNDAMENTAL DISCOVERY

Einstein's discovery in physics traces back to 1905, with the appearance in a german journal of his article "on the electrodynamics of moving bodies". In this paper Einstein set forth the special theory of relativity, challenging man's existing concepts of time and space, of matter and energy. The foundations for the theory were laid down in two basic principles. The first was the principle of relativity: any motion is relative, a familiar illustration of the principle is a moving train or a ship. A person sitting in a train with darkened windows would have no idea of speed or direction, or perhaps even that the train was moving at all.

On a greater scale, the movement of the earth could not be detected if there were no heavenly bodies for comparisons. Nowhere on the earth or in the universe is there anything absolutely at rest, motion is the natural state of all things, and every body's movement is relative to that of another.

Einstein's second hypothesis was that the velocity of light is independent of the motion of its source. The speed of light, 186,000 miles per second (300,000 km. per sec.), is always the same, anywhere in the universe regardless of place, time, or direction. Light travel Is in a moving train, for instance, at exactly the same speed as it does outside the train. No force can make it go faster or slower.

The most difficult of all einsteinian concepts to comprehend is the relativity of time. Applying the theory to the universe, an event on a distant star, say an explosion, didn't occur on the star at the same time as it was seen on the earth. The star seen today is actually the star as it appeared long ago. It may have even ceased to exist. Neither time nor space can exist without each other and they are, therefore, interdependent.

2. Перекладіть українською мовою наступні речення.


  1. Motion is the natural state of all things.

  2. Everybody’s movement is relative to that of another.

  3. No force can make it go faster or slower.

  4. The most difficult of all Einsteinian concepts to comprehend is the relativity of time.

  5. It explains how the sun and all the stars can go on radiating light and heat for billions of years.

  6. Einstein’s fame rests primarily upon the theory of relativity.

3. Перекладіть слова та вирази англійською мовою.

Матерія, енергія, рух, швидкість, напрямок, відносний, тіло, стан, в спокої, світло, сила, радіоактивні елементи, гравітаційне поле, магнітне поле.



4.Поставте спеціальні запитання до 1-5 речень тексту.

5.Перекладіть подані нижче речення англійською мовою, вживаючи модальні дієслова тау, сап та еквівалент to be able to.

  1. Хто може перекласти це речення?

  2. Хто з вас зможе піти в кіно завтра вранці? - Ніхто з нас не

  3. зможе.

  4. Можна взяти на хвилинку ваш підручник?

  5. Я також хотів піти в кіно, але не зміг.

  6. Ви зможете обговорити ці питання завтра вранці.

6.Поставте наступні речення в заперечну та запитальну форми.

  1. I am taking the book off the table.

  2. He is reading a book now.

  3. They are looking at me

  4. She is opening the exercise-book.

  5. I am closing the door.

  6. They are looking at me.


Питання для самоконтролю:


  1. When did Einstein discover his Special Theory of Relativity?

  2. What was the fist principle of the theory?

  3. Is there anything absolutely at rest on the earth?

  4. What is the natural state of all things?

  5. What was the second hypothesis of the theory?

  6. What is the speed of light?

  7. What is the most difficult of all Einsteinian concepts to comprehend?

  8. How can we apply this theory to the universe?

  9. Why are time and space interdependent?

  10. What does Einstein study in the General Theory of Relativity?



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