Міністерство аграрної політики та продовольства України Мирогощанський аграрний коледж завдання для самостійної підготовки студентів заочного відділення з навчальної дисципліни



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Тема: READING AND TRANSLATING OF A PROFESSION ORIENTED TEXTS

План:

1.Radio Wawes.

2.How does it work.

Рекомендована література:

1. А.Д. Олійник «Англійська мова», - Київ, 2009.

2. Л.О. Ніценко «Англійська мова», - НМЦ, 2004.

3. А.М. Ярошенко «Курс англійської мови», - Т.: 2003.



Після вивченої теми студент повинен вміти, знати:

1) лексику по даній темі;

2) читати, перекладати тексти по темі;

3) вести бесіду по темі.


Методичні вказівки:

1. Read and remember the following words and combinations.

to be arranged - бути розміщеним;

wavelength [welvlef]9] - довжина хвилі;

infrared waves - інфрачервоні хвилі;

broadcast [biO:dka:st] - радіопередача;

amplitude modulation - амплітудна модуляція;

frequency modulation - частотна модуляція;

vibrating current - пульсуючий струм;

space [spels] - простір;

ray [rel] - промінь.



2. Read and translate the following text.

RADIO WAVES

Radio waves are the longest members of the family of electromagnetic waves. In the spectrum, in which the waves are arranged in order of increasing wavelength, they lie beyond the infrared waves. Their wavelengths range from about three hundredths of a centimeters to about 300 kilometers. Radio broadcasts today are made by two different methods as AM (amplitude modulation) and FM (frequency modulation). The frequency' of the waves used are expressed in kilocycles or megacycles. The vibrating current is fed into an antenna from which the radio waves are broadcast into space.

Microwaves are the smallest radio waves. In the spectrum of electromagnetic waves they lie between infrared rays and long radio waves. The shortest microwaves have a wavelength of about three hundredths of a centimeters and a frequency of one million megacycles. The longest microwaves have a wavelength of about three meters and a frequency of one hundred megacycles.

3. Choose the right statement.

1. Radio waves are the shortest members of the family of electromagnetic waves.

2. They lie beyond the infrared waves.

3. Their wavelength range from about three hundredths of centimeters to about 1 kilometer.

4. The frequencies of the waves are expressed in kilowatts and megawatts.

5. Microwaves are the smallest radio waves. 6. They lie between infrared rays and long radio waves. 7. The shortest microwaves have the wavelength of about three hundredth of a centimeters. 8. The longest microwaves have a wavelength of about 300 meters.



Питання для самоконтролю:

What waves do radio waves lie beyond?

How do their wavelengths range?

What are the frequencies of the waves expressed in?

What are micro wavers?

Where do they lie in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves?

What wavelength do the shortest microwaves have?

What wavelength do the longest microwaves have?



Тема: READING AND TRANSLATING OF A PROFESSION ORIENTED TEXTS

План:

1. How does television work.

2. How is the picture formed.

3. What principle does color TV work on.



Рекомендована література:

1. А.Д. Олійник «Англійська мова», - Київ, 2009.

2. Л.О. Ніценко «Англійська мова», - НМЦ, 2004.

3. А.М. Ярошенко «Курс англійської мови», - Т.: 2003.



Після вивченої теми студент повинен вміти, знати:

1) лексику по даній темі;

2) читати, перекладати тексти по темі;

3) вести бесіду по темі.


Методичні вказівки:

1. Learn the words.

Вивчити слова.

similar – схожий

to transmit – передавати

frequency – частотність

to amplify – збільшувати, посилювати

ray tube – променева трубка

interlaced – переплетений

frame – кадр

subsequent – наступний

persistence – стійкість

coating – покриття

to obtain – отримати

lens – лінза

image – зображення

blend – суміш
2. Read and translate the text.

Прочитати і перекласти текст.

TELEVISION
Television works on a similar principle to radio except two signals have to be transmitted one for the sound and one for the vision. In the receiver these signals, which are close to each other in frequency have to be amplified and separated.

The picture is formed by making a beam of electrons move across the screen of a cathode ray tube, variation in the intensity of the beam causing areas of transmission – these are the number of line that can be seen making up the picture. With interlaced scanning the whole screen is covered by half the number of lines in 1/50th of a second – this is called a frame. The remaining line fill the spaces between the first frame during a subsequent period of 1/50th of a second, thus the whole process takes 1/25th of a second. During this time the spot of light has covered the whole screen twice, but owing to the persistence of the fluorescent coating of the tube, the whole screen is illuminated. To obtain a proper picture, the movement of the electron beam in the receiver must be exactly synchronized with the beam in the television camera. This is achieved by transmitting pulses with the vision signal.

The television camera consist of lens system similar to the lens used in a photographic camera, the image from which is projected into a camera tube. This consists of a photosensitive mosaic scanned by an electron beam. All are housed in an evacuated glass tube. The output signal of the camera tube are usually preamplified within the body of the camera.

Color TV works on the same principle, the camera having three separate tubes each sensitive to one of the three colors red, green, or blue. All the colors are made up from blends of the three colors.



3. Choose the right statements.
1. Television works on a different principle to radio.

2. The sound signal and the vision signal are very much different from each other in frequency.

3. The picture is formed by formed by making a beam of electrons move across the screen of a cathode ray tube.

4. The process of making a picture takes 1 minute.

5. The television camera consist of an optical lens system.

6. Color TV camera has 4 separate tubes, each sensitive to one of the four colors: red, green, blue or black.


4. Make up sentences using the Past Perfect Tense.
1) My parents/ never to ski/ in the mountains before.

2) She/ to ask/ you for help?

3) How many tickets/ you/ to sell/ by seven o’clock yesterday?

4) The climbers/ to find/ this cave/ two years before.

5) Adam/ to arrive/ to the camp/ before the sunrise.

6) I/ to receive/ your e-mail/ by the end of the working day.

7) The hurricane/ to stop/ by the end of the day?

8) Whom/ they/ to speak to/ before the conference?

9) His cousins/ not to visit/ this country/ before.

10) The children/ to plant/ the trees/ by twelve o’clock yesterday.


Питання для самоконтролю:
Does television work on a similar principle to radio?

How is the picture formed?

What way is the screen illuminated in?

What should we do to obtain a proper picture?

Does the television camera consist of an optical lens system?

What principle does color TV work on?




Тема: READING AND TRANSLATING OF A PROFESSION ORIENTED TEXTS
План:

1. The first engine.

2. Steam engine.

3. The internal combustion engine.


Рекомендована література:

1. А.Д. Олійник «Англійська мова», - Київ, 2009.

2. Л.О. Ніценко «Англійська мова», - НМЦ, 2004.

3. А.М. Ярошенко «Курс англійської мови», - Т.: 2003.



Після вивченої теми студент повинен вміти, знати:

1) лексику по даній темі;

2) читати, перекладати тексти по темі;

3) вести бесіду по темі.


Методичні вказівки:

1. Learn the words.
water wheel – водяне колесо

blade – лезо

fix – прикріпляти

irrigation fields – зрошувальні поля

invent – винаходи

wooden blades – дерев’яні леза

one can see – можна побачити

steam engine – паровий двигун

furnace – топка, піч

boil – кипіти

disadvantages – недоліки

imperfection – недосконалість

powerful – потужний

enable – давати можливість

jet – реактивний

reach – досягати

melt - танути

2. Read and translate the text.

ENGINES
Do you know what the first engine was like? It was called “water wheel”. This was an ordinary wheel with blades fixed to it, and the current of a river turned it. These first engines were used for irrigating fields.

Then a wind-powered engine was invented. This was a wheel, but a very small one. Long wide wooden blades were attached to it. The new engine was driven by the wind. Some of these one can still see in the country.

Both of these, the water- and wind-operated engines are very economical. They do not need fuel in order to function. But they are depend on the weather.

Many years passed and people invented a new engine, one operated by steam. In a steam engine, there is a furnace and boiler. The furnace is filled with wood or coal and then lit. The fire heats the water in the boiler and when it boils, it turns into steam which does some useful work.

The more coal is put in the furnace, the stronger the fire is burning. The more steam there is the faster a train or a boat is moving.

The steam engine drove all sorts of machines, for example, steam ships and steam locomotives. Indeed, the very first airplane built by A.F. Mozhaisky also had a steam engine. However, the steam engine had its disadvantages. It was too large and heavy, and needed too much fuel.

The imperfections of the steam engines led to the design of a new type. It was called the internal combustion engine, because its fuel ignites and burns inside the engines itself and not in a furnace. It is a smaller and lighter than a steam engine because it does not have a boiler. It is also more powerful, as it uses better-quality fuel: petrol or kerosene.

The internal combustion engine is not used in cars, diesel locomotives and motor ships. But to enable aeroplanes to fly faster than the speed of sound another, more powerful engine was needed. Eventually, one was invented and it was given the name “jet engine”. The gases in it reach the temperature of over a thousand degrees. It is made of a very resistant metal so that it will not melt.




3. Put the verbs in brackets into correct form (Past Perfect)

Поставте дієслова в дужках у правильній формі.
1. We … (already to give) our projects to the teacher.

2. Sandra … (to do) the shopping before the New Year Eve.

3. You … (not to phone) me by the end of the week.

4. I … (not to try) such a delicious cake before.

5. … your sister … (to reserve) the hotel room beforehand? – Yes, she … .

6. … Mr Smith … (to discuss) that problem with his lawyer? – No, he … .

7. Clara … (never to be) to the Pyramids before.

8. … you … (to take) part in this festival before? – No, I … .

9. Mark … (to finish) his work by 6 o’clock yesterday.

10. … Nigel … (to find) any information in the Internet by last Tuesday? – Yes, he … .


Питання для самоконтролю:
How was the first engine called?

Where were the first engine used?

What is there in a steam engine?

What was put in the furnace?

What did the steam engine drive?

What led to the design of a new type?

Where is the internal combustion engine used?
Тема: READING AND TRANSLATING OF A PROFESSION ORIENTED TEXTS
План:

1. Climate of Great Britain.

2. Different types of soil.

3. Crop production.

4. Fish farming.

Рекомендована література:

1. А.Д. Олійник «Англійська мова», - Київ, 2009.

2. Л.О. Ніценко «Англійська мова», - НМЦ, 2004.

3. А.М. Ярошенко «Курс англійської мови», - Т.: 2003.



Після вивченої теми студент повинен вміти, знати:

1) лексику по даній темі;

2) читати, перекладати тексти по темі;

3) вести бесіду по темі.


Методичні вказівки:

1. Learn the words.

acreage – площа в акрах

ash – ясень

beech – бук

circuit – довжина округи

cod – тріска

coniferous – хвойні дерева

consumption – споживання

efficiency – дієвість, ефективність

elm – в’яз

expansion – розширення

feature – характерна особливість, риса

fit – придатний, відповідати, годитися

flatfishes – плескаті риби (камбала, палтус)

flounder – камбала

graze – випасати (худобу)

tend – мати тенденцію, намір

rainbow trout – райдужна форель



2. Read and translate the text.
AGRICULTURE IN GREAT BRITAIN
British agriculture has long had a reputation for its pioneering of new techniques and high efficiency, and remains among the most progressive in the world. In a small country, with a considerable proportion of mountain, moorland, and other land unfit for cultivation, the area available for agriculture is now about 46.45 million acres (18.98 million hectares), representing 49%of the total area of the United Kingdom. Of this agricultural land more than 15 million acres (6 million hectares) consist of grazing land and only 30 million acres (12 million hectares) are under crops and grass.

Due to geographic location of Great Britain (on the British Isles) the climate is oceanic in type. The winters are mild and the summers are cool, but long enough to produce crops. The warmth comes from the Gulf Stream. In January the average temperature is +3, +7, in July +16, +17. The winds from the ocean to the south-west bring rainfall throughout the year. The rainfall is heaviest on the west coasts. The winds coming from the east are drier. So the west side of England, with more rain and snow, has a different sort of farming from the east side, which has far less rain and even sometimes has drought.

Soil, also, varies from one part of England to another. In the country of Norfolk, on the drier eastern side of England, some of the soil is so sandy and stony that the most suitable crop is trees, yet within a few miles there is deep rich soil which, together with the dry climate, produces wonderful grain crops.

The rivers of Great Britain are short but abundant, and they never freeze. The main rivers are the Thames, the Tyne, the Humber, the Severn, the Mersey. A considerable area of land is covered with meadows and heaths.

Thus, two outstanding features of agriculture in the United Kingdom are the wide variations in soils and the significant differences in climate. The wetter and milder west of England, Wales and Northern Ireland have always had a predominance of permanent pasture and hence the raising of cattle and dairy, while the driver and colder east of England and Scotland has been specialized in arable production.

In some areas, especially near large urban centers, the agricultural scene is extremely varied, and it is possible to see grain crops, dairy cattle, sheep, orchards and soft fruits, potatoes and vegetables, poultry, market gardens, all within a circuit of 10 miles (16 km)or less.

Agriculture in Great Britain is intensive and highly mechanized. In the western part of the country, most farms are dairy. Income from livestock and dairy products is about three times that from crops. Farmers raise cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry. British livestock breeders have developed many of the cattle, sheep and pig breeds with worldwide reputation. There are over 60 principal breeds of sheep in Britain.

Crop production is concentrated on the eastern side. On the arable land wheat and barley are supreme, accounting between them for well over half the acreage. Such other crops as potatoes, sugar beets, oats, maize (corn), rape for oilseed are also significant. About 5,400 acres (2,200 hectares) are under glass or plastic for growing early tomatoes and other market-garden produce.

Bulbs and flower growing are established in former marshland areas in Kent, with over 13,000 acres (5,300 hectares) devoted to these specialties.

Crop production is the main enterprise, but there are still many mixed farms on which farmers both grow crops and raise livestock. The mixed farm produces many different types of food: milk, butter and cheese, beef, pork, bacon, wheat, barley, sugar beet, mutton and, of course, all sorts of poultry, since hens, ducks, and turkeys can always be fitted in somewhere.

Fish farming is a small but highly productive sector of Scotland’s rural industry. Marine fishes harvested include Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic herring, cod, and various flatfishes, including flounder, Atlantic salmon and Norway lobster. The principal freshwater fish is rainbow trout. Domestic fish production provides about three-quarters of Great Britain’s needs.

Of the approximately 2.2 million hectares (about 5.4 million acres) of woodlands in Great Britain, about 40 percent are in England, 49 percent in Scotland, and 11 percent in Wales. However they provide only 15 percent of home consumption of wood products. Private owners hold more than 60 percent of the total forestlands. About 70 percent of productive forest is coniferous. The most common broadleaved trees are oak, beech, ash, and elm. Pine and birch predominate in Scotland.



3. Прочитайте текст ще раз та знайдіть всі речення з Present Perfect та Present Perfect Continuous активного стану. Поясніть їх вживання. Поставте питання до цих речень.

4. Заповніть пропуски словами з тексту, що наводяться нижче.
1. Of this agricultural land more than 15 million acres consist of … and only 30 million acres are under … and grass.

2. … geographical location of Great Britain (on the British Isles) the climate is … in type. The winters are … and the summer are cool, but … to produce crops.

3. Thus, two … of agriculture in the United Kingdom are the wide … in soils and the … in climate.

4. In some areas, … near large … centres, the agricultural scene is … varied, and it is possible to see grain crops, dairy cattle, sheep, … and soft fruits, potatoes and vegetables, poultry, … , all within a circuit of 10 miles (16 km) or less.

5. Crop production is concentrated on the … side. On the … land wheat and barley are, accounting between them for well over half the … .
(crops, market gardens, acreage, due to, mild, long enough, variations, extremely, occur, grazing land, significant differences, especially, urban, oceanic, orchards, eastern, arable, supreme, outstanding features).

Питання для самоконтролю:
Why does British agriculture remain one of the most progressive in the world?

What is its area available for agriculture?

Is the climate of Great Britain favourable to the development of agriculture?

What are two outstanding features of agriculture in the United Kingdom?

Why is the agricultural scene extremely varied near large urban centres?

What types of farms are distinguished in Great Britain?

Where is arable production concentrated in the country?

What are the main grain crops in Great Britain?

What are the main livestock products?

What does the mixed farm produce?

What part of Great Britain is highly productive in fish farming?

Do forests of Great Britain completely provide home consumption of wood products?

What are the most common broadleaves and coniferous trees of Great Britain?

Тема: READING AND TRANSLATING OF A PROFESSION ORIENTED TEXTS
План:

1. Crop growing of Ukraine.

2. Animal breeding of Ukraine.
Рекомендована література:

1. А.Д. Олійник «Англійська мова», - Київ, 2009.

2. Л.О. Ніценко «Англійська мова», - НМЦ, 2004.

3. А.М. Ярошенко «Курс англійської мови», - Т.: 2003.



Після вивченої теми студент повинен вміти, знати:

1) лексику по даній темі;

2) читати, перекладати діалоги по темі;

3) складати власні діалоги по темі.


Методичні

fertile soil – родючий грунт

grain crops – зернові культури

industrial crops – технічні культури

fruit raising – плодівництво

cereals – хлібні злаки

wheat – пшениця

buckwheat – гречка

flax – льон

garlic – часник

pig raising – свинарство

cattle breeding – розведення великої рогатої худоби

sheep farming – вівчарство

poultry – свійська птиця

livestock – худоба

fish farming – рибництво

bee keeping – бджільництво
2. Read and translate the text.
Agrarian Sector of Ukraine.
Ukraine has very favourable conditions for the development of agricultural production: fertile soils, temperately warm climate, a well-developed industry processing agricultural raw materials.

All the principal areas of plant cultivation are: grain and industrial crops, meadow crops, fruit and vegetable raising. Almost half of the cropping area is occupied by cereals such as: winter wheat, maize and legumes, rye, oats, barley. The principal grain crop, winter wheat, is sown mainly in the Steppe zones. Buckwheat, millet, rice play an important role.

Among the industrial crops such as sugar beet, sunflower, flax, the leading position is occupied by sugar beet.

Close to 40 types of vegetables crops are grown in Ukraine: cabbage, tomatoes, cucumbers, red beet, carrot, onion, garlic, etc. Melon growing is practiced mainly in the south. Potatoes occupy 6% of total area under cultivation.

Animal husbandry is the second largest component of agriculture. Like plant cultivation, livestock production is divided into two branches. The most widespread branch is cattle breeding, pig raising is another important area. Sheep farming is also practiced.

The poultry industry is spread in all the provinces. Birds farmed include chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys. There are large mechanized poultry factories to produce eggs and meat.

Fish farming is growing in importance, with carp being the most common fish. Trout, which is to be found in the mountain rivers, is of commercial interest.

Bee keeping is spread through all zones. It is extensively practiced on private plots. Fur animals being farmed include the silver and blue fox, mink and nutria.


3. Підберіть терміни, подані ліворуч, до їх визначень праворуч.


1. poultry

a) a farm animal reared for wool and meat;

2. breed

b) the meal of an animal of the cow family;

3. calf

c) domesticated birds used for food or egg production;

4. feed

d) animals raised on a farm;

5. sheep

e) the young of cattle;

6. livestock

f) the classification of a type of animal.



1. hybrid

a) a type of crop which is planted in the fall (autumn);

2. crop rotation

b) temporary grassland;

3. strain

c) organic material used as fertilizer;

4. lea

d) growing various crops at different times on the same land in a planned series;

5. winter crop

e) a plant that results from the crossing of different varieties;

6. dung

f) a variety, especially obtained by cross fertilizing.



Питання для самоконтролю:
1. What are the conditions for the development of Ukrainian agriculture?

2. What are its principal areas of plant cultivation?

3. Where is winter wheat sown?

4. Which crop occupies the leading position among the industrial crops?

5. What vegetables do they grow in Ukraine?

6. What area under cultivation is occupied by potatoes?

7. How is livestock production divided?

8. What is the most widespread branch of animal breeding?

9. What birds are farmed in Ukraine?

10. How is agricultural production organized in Ukraine?

11. What is per capita land supply in our country?

12. How many hectares of lands are watered and dried in Ukraine?




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