Міністерство аграрної політики та продовольства України Мирогощанський аграрний коледж завдання для самостійної підготовки студентів заочного відділення з навчальної дисципліни



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  • Exercise
Exercise

a) Work with the dictionary. Find the words NUMBER and ORDER – copy out the meanings of these words.

b) Translate into Ukrainian. Pay attention to the italicized (виділені) words:



  1. There is no light in this corridor as there are no windows in it.

  2. The room was light and clean.

  3. Little Tommy can carry this box – it is light.

  4. Why did they light that old lamp?

  5. Look at this figure.

  6. The square is a geometrical figure.

  7. What is the number of your room?

  8. I don’t know the number of the people who were absent at the annual meeting.

  9. The population of Ukraine numbers 45, million people.

  10. He ordered some new furniture for the office.


3. Латинізми (Words – Adjectives – of Latin Origin)

В англійській науково-технічній літературі часто зустрічаються прикметники латинського походження, які мають відповідні англійські іменники. Наприклад, англійський іменник water (вода) має прикметник з латинським коренем aquatic (водний). Іменник sea (море) має прикметник maritime (морський). Такі іменникові-прикметникові пари становлять певні труднощі для розуміння і перекладу.

Ось ще приклади таких пар:

body – corporal тіло - тілесний

brain – cerebral мозок - мозковий

citizen – civil громадянин - цивільний

city – urban місто-міський

earth – terrestrial земля - земний

father – paternal батько - батьківський

gold – auric золото - золотий

hand – manual рука - ручний

head – capital голова - головний

heart – cordial серце - серцевий

heat – thermal тепло - тепловий

house – domestic дім - домашній

iron – ferrous залізо - залізний

law – legal закон - законний

letter – literal буква - буквений

life – vital життя - життєвий

lips – labial губи - губний

man – masculine чоловік - чоловічий

man – human людина - людський

mind – mental розум - розумовий

money – monetary гроші - грошовий

mother – maternal мати - материнський

sky – celestial небо - небесний

son – filial син - синівський

star – astral зірка - зоряний

sun – solar сонце - сонячний

time – temporal час - часовий

tongue – lingual мова - мовний

tooth – dental зуб - зубний

war – military війна - військовий

woman – feminine жінка - жіночий

word – verbal слово - словесний

village – rural село - сільський

year – annual рік – річний

Exercise

a) Translate into English the following word combinations using the adjectives of Latin origin:

1.військова служба; 2. річний план; 3. сільські новини; 4. ручна праця; 5. батьківський наказ; 6. теплова електростанція; 7. домашні тварини; 8. сердечні привітання; 9. грошова політика; 10. розумові здібності.


b) Learn by heart the pairs of nouns and adjectives, which are connected with your profession or with sciences you are studying .
c) Testing.

Match Test

Some English nouns have adjectives which derive from Latin/ For example the adjective of city is urban.

Can you match the correct adjective to each of these nouns?

Підберіть правильний прикметник до кожного з цих іменників.

1 country side a) solar

2 hand b) fraternal

3 sun c) manual

4 moon d) oral

5 ear e) paternal

6 mouth f) aural

7 father g) rural

8 brother h) lunar

Питання для самоконтролю:

Learn the information.

Тема: READING AND TRANSLATING OF A PROFESSION ORIENTED TEXTS

План:

1. Landscape Design.

2. Greenery

3. Landscape plants.


Рекомендована література:

1. А.Д. Олійник «Англійська мова», - Київ, 2009.

2. Л.О. Ніценко «Англійська мова», - НМЦ, 2004.

3. А.М. Ярошенко «Курс англійської мови», - Т.: 2003.



Після вивченої теми студент повинен вміти, знати:

1) лексику по даній темі;

2) читати, перекладати тексти по темі;

3) вести бесіду по темі.


Методичні вказівки:

1) Read and translate the texts.
Landscape design
Landscape design is a result of human’s activity on a plot of land for creating beautiful views.

Landscape design is a method of providing inside territories with artistic value.

Landscape design has some styles.

Landscape style is a style of landscape design based on natural views without geometric figures, with flexible forms of garden constructions: paths and walks, walling, pavilion, pergola, arch, - with flexible forms of garden water features: garden reservoirs, ponds, - with flexible forms of groups of landscape plants: trees, bushes, flowers in flower bed.



We use a landscape plants from our nursery that makes the

process of greenery very quick and simple. These elements are

well based on the background of garden hedge and lawn.

   


Elements of landscape design:
-   stony slope with garden pond or reservoir;

- area for the rest with garden pavilion or other constructions between trees;

-   wall of stone with flowers or other rocks in a garden;

-   garden water features: spring, stream and pond or reservoir with  garden rocks on the banks and bushes, flowers between them.

Landscape project is an artistic passport of a plot. There are usually some zones in the landscape design of the garden without clear limits, which are in regard with illumination of sunlight.

It’s important to project out beautiful views and isolate poor details, to take into account the wishes of the plot’s owner and opportunity of maintenance of the landscape project. One can have got not many landscape plants: trees, bushes, flowers – or elements of landscape design in the garden: flower-bed, pavilion, garden reservoir or pond, garden rocks – but everything is to be in harmony with each other.
      landscape project      landscape design on the plot



Greenery
Greenery is the planting of plants. Planting of greenery is a laborious process. You are to take into account peculiarity of soil, light, humidity, relief. Then  to choose landscape plants for greenery, which have necessary frost-, winter-cold- and drought-resistance. Some landscape plants for greenery love a bright light, some landscape plants for greenery prefer scattered light or shade. There are landscape plants for greenery which well naturalized for long-term cold spells. We cultivate only such landscape plants for greenery in our nursery for plots, and heat-loving landscape plants use for interior landscape design for home and office.

Landscape plants for greenery we cultivate in our nursery on the North from Moscow and guarantee their taking root. We have got young landscape plants for greenery in our nursery newly grown from seeds (seedling), landscape  plants for greenery grown by cutting shot piece of a plant (graft) and landscape plants for greenery newly grown by layers. Our nursery guarantee quality of the landscape plants for greenery of your garden.. Different methods of propagation supply our company with qualitative saplings in sufficient quantity. We sell our landscape plants for greenery in pots and drugged out with clumps of earth.

Greenery needs some analyses of a soil. It is necessary to carry out:


  • topographical survey;

  • to find out of the subsoil water’s level;

  • analyze fertility of a soil (strongly acid, weakly acid, neutral, strongly or weakly alkaline, how much humus, nutrient elements it has);

  • if it is necessary to make a project of drainage system;

  • if it is necessary to make a project of automatic sprinkling system.





Landscape plants

Landscape plants (trees and bushes) differ from each other by color, size of leaves and flowers, by trunks and sprouts. One is to get to know peculiarity of growth and developing of trees and bushes so that to compose them nicely.

This is the list of the most interesting landscape plants (trees and bushes).

Cornus alba – bush till 3 meters height. It blossom two times a season with white inflorescences, then white with blue shadow fruits are appearing. After autumn fall of the leave bush’s barks of cherry color is becoming visual. It is very fitted bush for the garden hedge, grown by nature.

Japanese quince-tree (Chaenomeles) – a thorny bush of 0,5 meters height. Leaves don’t fell down till November and the bush is reminded evergreen. In May – June the bush blossoms with big (till 4 centimeters) orange and red flowers. Then apple-shaped fruits appear on the bush.

These bush’s fruits use for cooking jam.  Japanese quince tree is very fitted bush for low garden hedge.



Barberries (Berberis) – thorny bush for high (2,5 meters) garden hedge. The bush can be trimmed. In June the bush blossoms with yellow fragrant flowers. Bright red fruits stay on the bush’s sprouts all the winter.  Barberries is a unpretentious, drought-resistant bush. There is barberries Thunbergii not so high bush (till 1,2 meter height). This bush uses for garden hedge too.

There is bush of  barberries with yellow foliage (Aurea) and with purple foliage (Atropurpurea). Barberries is very fitted bush for middle and high garden hedge.



Chestnut-tree (Aesculus hippocastanum) – a tree of 15 meters height  by conditions of Moscow area, big white with pink shadow inflorescence like candles, nice, big dark-green leaves. Expressive graphicity of tree’s sprouts after foliage are fallen down (it is deciduous tree) look nicely. Big buds of chestnut-tree remind flower-bud in spring.

Weeping willow (Salix pendula) – a tree till 4-5 meters height with fallen branches, narrow long leaves that are silver-like from bellow. Weeping willow tree looks nicely near a water in a garden. The tree is very unpretentious and winter-resistant.


Cornus alba

 



Barberries

Japanese quince-tree

Landscape & Garden constructions
   Garden constructions are driveway, paths, walks, walling, garden pavilion, gazebo, pergola, screened porch and arch, and at last different items of rocks in the garden.

    A few words about some of them:

Driveway, paths, walks - we are carrying out paving by stone for driveway, using a sand or gravel for garden paths and walks. This garden construction is the first step in the maintenance of a landscape design.

Walling – whether it to be for privacy, shelter, to create a barrier or simply to frame an area, walls can play an important part in landscape design. This garden construction is built not often.

Pavilion, gazebo – is a not big building for the rest near a reservoir in a garden with excellent panorama of a landscape design. As a rule pavilions have dot a simple garden construction. This garden construction is to be carried out according to the project. In the project of a garden construction of the pavilion  is to have got some decorative elements. Lianas planted near a pavilion attach a particular romance to this garden construction.

Pergola – here we use the term “pergola” to mean any kind of garden constructions  formed from rows of upright wooden pillars supporting horizontal beam such as covered walkways. Pergola is an attractive element of landscape design.

Arch and porch – a decorative screened arch or porch covered with climbing roses and honeysuckle vines attract beetles and butterflies. In landscape design one can use arch and porch of different materials: wood, stone, metal. Pergola, a decorative screened porch covered with climbing roses and honeysuckle vines attract   butterflies.



2) Put the verbs in brackets into the present Simple or Past Simple Tense.

1) What … Diana … (usually to do) in the evening? – She usually … (to go) for a walk with her friend.

2) What … Ben … (to do) yesterday? – He … (to help) his father in the garage and then he … (to play) football with other boys.

3) … Robert … (to call) his dentist last Tuesday? – No, he … .

4) Where … you … (usually to spend) your winter holidays? – We often … (to go) to the mountains, but last winter we … (to go) to Italy.

5) Where … she… (to spend) her last weekend? – She … (to visit) her grandparents in the country.

6) … your Granny … (to cook) jam every summer? – Yes, she … .

7) Who … (to give) you this note yesterday? – My neigbour.

8) When … his training … (to finish) yesterday? – It … (to finish) at half past seven.

9) When … this TV show … (usually to finish)? – It always … (to finish) at seven o’clock.

10) Who … (to phone) you every evening? My friends.
Питання для самоконтролю:
1. What does landscape design mean?

2. What are the elements of landscape design?

3. Landscape project is an artistic passport of a plot, isn’t it?

4. What is greenery?

5. What does greenery need?

6. What landscape plants do you know?

7. Describe such landscape plants:

- cornus alba;

- japanese quince-tree;

- chestnut-tree;

- weeping willow.

8. What garden constructions do you know? Describe them.



Тема: READING AND TRANSLATING OF A PROFESSION ORIENTED TEXTS

План:

1.Power Transmission.

2.A transformer

Рекомендована література:

1. А.Д. Олійник «Англійська мова», - Київ, 2009.

2. Л.О. Ніценко «Англійська мова», - НМЦ, 2004.

3. А.М. Ярошенко «Курс англійської мови», - Т.: 2003.



Після вивченої теми студент повинен вміти, знати:

1) лексику по даній темі;

2) читати, перекладати тексти по темі;

3) вести бесіду по темі.


Методичні вказівки:
1. Read and remember the following words and word combination.

an electrical device - електроприлад;

electromotive force - електрорушійна сила;

alternating current - змінний струм;

transformer [trans' ft :m9] - трансформатор;

step-up - підвищувати;

step-down - понижувати;

indispensable [lndis'pens8bl] - незамінний;

power house - підстанція;

voltage fvDlticy - напруга;

an attempt [a'tempt] - спроба;

cable [kelbl] — кабель;

to be consumed in - витрачатися на ... cited [saltid] - вказаний; substation [sA'bstelSn] - підстанція.

2. Read and translate the following text.

POWER TRANSMISSION

A transformer is an electrical device by which the electromotive force of a source of alternating current may be increased or decreased. They are widespread in long-distance power -transmission as well as in telephones, radio transmitters and receivers, telev ision and etc. Nearly all transformers come under one of the two following classes: step-up, and step-down transformers. In the transmission of electrical energy over wires for long distance, transformers are practically indispensable. At the power in the distant mountains, for example, electric current is generated by huge alternating current generators at the relatively low voltage of several thousand volts. If an attempt were made to transmit this electrical energy, at a voltage of say 2,200 volts, over many miles of wire cable to a distant city, the current would be so large that nearly all of the energy would be consumed in heating the power line. The heat generated (it should be remembered) is proportional to the square of the current (heat=0,24 I2Rt).

To avoid large heat losses, transformers at the power house step the voltage up to some 220,000 volts before switching the current onto the power line. Since the voltage in the case cited is increased one- hundred fold, the current drops by the same proportion to one-hundredth. Since the square of 1/100 is 1/10,000, the heat loss along the transmission line is only one ten thousandth of what it would have been had the transformer not been used.

At the city end of the power line, a transformer substation steps the voltage down to something like its original value of 2,200 volts. From there branch lines distribute the power to various sections of the city where smaller transformers, one near each group of several houses, step it down again to the relatively safe voltage of 110 to 220 volts.

3. Choose the right statements.


        1. A transformer is an electrical device by which the electromotive force of a source of alternating current may by changed.

        2. Nearly all transformers come under one of three classes.

        3. In the transmission of electrical energy over wires for long distance, transformers are of no use.

        4. At the power house in the distant place, electric current is generated by huge alternating cuirent generators at the relatively low voltage.

        5. To avoid large heat losses transformers at the power house step the voltage down before switching the current onto the power line.

        6. At the city end of the power line, a transformer substation steps the voltage up.

        7. The smaller transformers one each group of houses step the voltage down to the relatively safe voltage of 110 to 220 volts.

Питання для самоконтролю:
What is the power transformer?

What classes do all transformers come under?

Where are transformers practically indispensable.

At what voltage is electric current generated by huge alternating current generators at the power house in the distant mountains?

Why do transformers at the power house step the voltage up before switching the current on to the power line?

To what value does a transformer substation step the voltage down at the city end of the power line?



Тема: READING AND TRANSLATING OF A PROFESSION ORIENTED TEXTS

План:

1.Atomic Power station.

2.How does it work.

Рекомендована література:

1. А.Д. Олійник «Англійська мова», - Київ, 2009.

2. Л.О. Ніценко «Англійська мова», - НМЦ, 2004.

3. А.М. Ярошенко «Курс англійської мови», - Т.: 2003.



Після вивченої теми студент повинен вміти, знати:

1) лексику по даній темі;

2) читати, перекладати тексти по темі;

3) вести бесіду по темі.


Методичні вказівки:

1. Read and remember the following words and word combination.

mineral fuel - мінеральне паливо;

rapid ['rapid] - швидкий;

exhausted [ig'zD:stid] - виснажений;

sensible ['senslbl] - розумний;

scientific foundation - наукова основа;

harnessing ['ha:nlslr|] - курс використання;

atomic nucleus - атомне ядро;

significance [sig'nifikans] - значення, важливість;

to appreciate [ 9pri:Jieit] - цінувати;

to realize [ria'laiz] - розуміти, усвідомлювати;

ability [a'bilitl] - здатність;

nuclear power - ядерна енергія;

fission [fijn] - розчеплення; to split [ split] - розчіплювати; to release [rlli:z] - вивільняти; thermal ['09:т9І] - тепловий; steam boiler - паровий котел; lethal [Чі:09І] - смертельний: shielding system - захисна система.



2. Read and translate the following text.

ATOMIC POWER STATIONS



The reserves of mineral fuels in the world are limited and as a result of the rapid growth of their industrial exploitation they will become exhausted in the not too distant future. What is more it would be more sensible to use these minerals (especially oil) as raw materials for the chemical industry. It is natural, therefore, to look for new sources of power.

During the first half of the twentieth century scientists in a number of countries laid the scientific foundation for harnessing a new energy source - the atomic nucleus. The significance of this source of energy may be appreciated if one realizes that 1 kilogram of atomic material (uranium or thorium) is equivalent, in heating ability, to 2,700 tons of coal.

In nuclear power generation the former Soviet Union has led the world from the very start. In 1954 the USSR brought into operation the world's first nuclear power plant (5,000KW!). The energy of the atomic nucleus used in such systems is called atomic or nuclear energy, since it is heat energy obtained during the fission of heavy atomic nuclei. A neutron hits a nucleus and splits it into two approximately equal halves releasing at the same time several neutrons and beta and gamma radiation.

To obtain this energy continiously (not in the form of an explosion) so-called atomic (nuclear) reactors are used. A nuclear power station replaced thermal power station in which the nuclear reactor replaces the steam boiler. A relatively small quantity of "nuclear fuel" is consumed in a reactor, to obtain 100,000 kilowatts of heat it is enough to "bum" only 100 grams of nuclear material daily. But control of this burning is a very complex problem. The fission process is accompanied by very intense radio-active radiation that are lethal to all living things.

This makes it necessary to build special shielding systems to protect personnel from the radiation.

3. Choose the right statements.


            1. The reserves of mineral fuels in the world are not limited.

            2. The mankind must look for new sources of power.

            3. The scientist laid the scientific foundation for using the atomic nucleus.

            4. The world's first nuclear power plant was brought in to operation in the USA.

            5. The energy of atomic nucleus is called a thermal energy.

            6. To obtain this energy continuously atomic reactors are used.

            7. The fission process is absolutely safe to all living things.

            8. It is necessaiy to build special shielding systems to protect personnel from the radiation.

Питання для самоконтролю:

Why must we look for new sources of power instead of mineral fuels?

When did scientists lay the scientific foundation for harnessing the atomic energy?

When was the first nuclear power plant brought into operation?

What kind of energy is called nuclear energy?

How is this energy formed?

What are atomic reactors used for?

Why is the fission process dangerous to all living things?

What is it necessary to do to protect personnel from the radiation?



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